Some leaves, specially in xerophytes and halophytes, become fleshy because of the storage of water, mucilage and food matter. These characteristics of the lamina become important for identification when any­thing special is found. (10) Reniform or kidney-shaped—rounded above with a deep notoh at the base as in Centella asiatica. It is in this layer that photosynthesis occurs. The compound leaves of the family Fabaceae. A closer observation, however, shows that a very narrow lamina connects the lobes. (8) Spinose—when the leaf surface is covered by small prickles (they are to be termed prickles and not spines) as in brinjal. This is found in Balanites aegyptiaca of Simarubaceae, Hardwickia binnata of Papilionaceae, Campsis grandiflora of Bignoniaceae, etc. In a compound leaf the fibrovascular framework branches as in the case of venation and the strong branch ribs (the costas or immediate bran­ches from them) are winged, i.e., provided with lamina, forming leaflets. Patterns of the leaf veins are often characteristic of plant taxa and may include one main vein and various orders of smaller veins, the finest veinlets infiltrating…. The peculiar case of Lemna   has already been discussed. The base of a leaf is the lower part of the lamina, where it is attached to the petiole or stem. (3) Succulent—when soft and juicy as in Kalanchoe. These plants are usually rootless. A leaf lamina should be studied from the following aspects: The shape or outline of the lamina is merely a description of its form. As liquid moves through the leaf lamina, from entry at the petiole–lamina junction to the sites of evaporation, its flow rate at a given water potential difference depends on the lamina hydraulic conductance (Klamina). If dissection goes on still further even this connection disappears so that the lobes become completely independent of one ano­ther. From this midrib arise branches called veins. (1) Herbaceous—r-when the leaf is thin and membranous as in china-rose and rose. Common examples are Portulaca oleracea (Portulacaceae), Basella rubra, Suaeda maritima and Salsola kali of Chenopodiaceae, Aloe and Agaves, Kalanchoe, Sedum acre (stone crop), etc. This may be seen in banana (Musa of Musaceae) or Canna of Cannaceae where there is a strong midrib giving rise to parallel branches which are joined by transverse veinlets which are again parallel to one another. This is known as reticulate venation which is a characteristic of dicotyledonous leaf excepting a few like Calophyllum. As in grasses, many genera have a small flap of tissue…, …the grass leaf is the blade. For more terms describing other aspects of leaves besides their overall morphology see the leafarticle. Leaflets are borne in pairs as in Tamarindus indica , different species of Cassia, Swietenia mahogoni, etc. The Lamina (Epipodium) of A Leaf (With Diagram) ! (1) Acute—when pointed and narrow as in mango. Share Your PPT File. Such leaves contain a special storage tissue. In lower plants like the Pteridophytes, the branching of the veins is dichotomous. (ˈlæm ə nə) n., pl. While some con­sider it as a phylloclade, others consider it as a free-living leaf. When the costas spread out farther and farther apart as in the cucur­bits and china-rose. The air that we breathe in is not sterile. (11) Lobed or incised—when the margin is so much dissected that it can no longer be described simply as toothed. Another such pitcher is found in the epiphytic climber Dischidia rafflesiana (Asclepiadaceae) from Assam. Parallel venation, similarly, may be unicostate or multicostate. https://www.britannica.com/science/lamina-plant-leaf, Cyperaceae: Characteristic morphological features, Poaceae: Characteristic morphological features. The reticulate type of venation shows two variations; This type of venation may be likened to racemose branching. It is further divided into three parts: i) leaf apex – the tip of the leaf blade, ii) leaf margin – the edge of the leaf and, iii) leaf veins – the small channels or capillaries, which are further subdivided into venules. The base of the lamina also is united and continuous with this so that the beginning of the lamina cannot be clearly demarcated. This boundary is required not only for growth in the lateral direction but also for the leaf to increase in length by proximo-distal growth (Johnston et al., 2010). Answer Now and help others. This is the case in many aquatic plants as well. Leaf morphology. A compound leaf is sometimes confused with a twig bearing leaves. Veins provide rigidity to the leaf blade and act as channels of transport for water, minerals and food materials. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Content Guidelines 2. Climbing hooks are sometimes modified leaves. See more at leaf. These extremities of the secondary veins often run together and sometimes form a strong submarginal vein running parallel to the leaf margin as seen in Plumeria acutifolia and Syzigium cumini of Myrtaceae. Among the pinnately incised types some leaves, like those of radish or mustard, show lobes which are irregularly incised. Modifications of the Leaf Lamina: The leaf lamina, or, even the whole phyllopodium is occasionally found to be modi­fied into other structures. Results: The device indirectly estimates leaf moisture content using two electrodes applied to the leaf lamina of fresh and stored samples. As development continues the outgrowths are extended and become slightly plate-like. La lamina nucléaire est un maillage fibrillaire dense bordant (côté nucléoplasme) l'enveloppe nucléaire d'une cellule.Il s'agit d'un réseau protéique fibreux, homologue aux filaments intermédiaires qui double la membrane interne de l'enveloppe nucléaire formant une couche de 10 à 20 nm d'épaisseur et interrompue par des pores nucléaires. 2.62R) of Nymphaeaceae etc. ; (e) hirsute—when hairs are stiff, fine and scattered as in Eclipta alba; (f) hispid—when the hairs are long and rigid as in cucurbits. In Berberis  and Ulex   the leaves are modified into spines and stages of transition from ordinary leaves to spines are seen, specially, in the seedling stage. Leaf Evolution. (6) Tendrillar—when the apex forms a tendril for climbing as in Gloriosa. …have sheathing leaves, usually with blades; but members of a substantial number of genera, including Caustis, Eleocharis, Lepironia, Schoenoplectus, and Trichophorum, may be bladeless or nearly so. In this type the vascular supply, after reaching the base of the lamina, breaks up into a number of equally strong veins or costas. This indentation is sometimes so prominent that the leaf is said to be incised or lobed. (15) Cuneate or wedge-shaped as in Pistia stratiotes. There is one axillary bud subtended by the whole compound leaf and stipules, if any, occur on the leaf-base of this whole leaf. Share Your Word File (2) Coriaceous—when it is firm and leathery as in mango. A few monocotyledons like some aroids, Smilax, Dioscorea, etc., how­ever, show reticulate venation. Read More. (7) Cordate or heart-shaped –with a deep notch at the base as in betel vine (Piper betle). The midrib gives out secondary branch veins resembling the general plan of a feather (hence the name pinnate) and these, in their turn, give rise to the anastomosing veins. Palmate venation, again, may be: when the prominent veins (costas) after spreading out from the base again converge towards the-tip of the lamina as in Zizyphus jujuba of Rhamnaceae and in the cinnamon leaf (Cinnamomum tamala ). These again may be of many types: (a) pubescent—when the hair is soft and woolly as in tomato; (b) pilose—when the hairs are long, distinct and scattered as in Grewia flavescens; (c) villose—when hairs are long, soft and closely arranged as in Leucas aspera; (d) tomentose—when hairs are short, dense and cottony as in Terminalia tomentosa, Calolropis procera, etc. Venation is very clear on the lower surface of thin leaves. What are the characters Mendel selected for his experiments on pea plant? Shoeing a number of strong veins (costas) which are. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. …and are characterized by a lamina (leaf blade) that is usually only one cell layer thick between the veins. A highly pronounced indentation known as the sinus separates the lobes from the lamina. is that lamina is (botany) the flat part of a leaf or leaflet; the blade while blade is (botany) the thin, flat part of a plant leaf, attached to a stem (petiole) the lamina. 3. the blade or expanded portion of a leaf. (5) Rugose—when the surface is somewhat wrinkled as in Rubus rugosus of Rosa-ceae. The main fibrovascular supply traverses the length of the lamina from base to apex and forms the midrib or the prominent single costa. Develop­ment of spinous structures is a feature of the xerophytes. The pinnae are dissected again into pinnules so that the leaflets (pinnules) are borne not on die rachis but on its branches as in Acacia nilotica , Mimosa pudica, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, etc. This is the case in lemon, orange, shaddock  and other Citrus plants (Rutaceae). (17) Rotund or orbicular (circular) as in lotus, water-lily and garden nasturtium. Cuneate bases are sharp-pointed, with an angle less than 45 degrees between opposite sides which form a wedge or triangular shape that tapers to a narrow region at the point of attachment of lamina with petiole. What is the significance of transpiration? (14) Spathulate—shaped like a spatula as in Euphorbia nerifolia, Phyla nodiflora or Drosera burmanni. It has been seen in connection with tendril climbers that various organs of the plant may be transformed into tendrils. Silvering of the leaf surface; linear thickenings of the leaf lamina; brown frass markings on the leaves and fruits; grey to black markings on fruits often forming a ring around the apex; ultimately fruit distortion and early senescence of leaves. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? The conducting and mechanical tissues of the vascular system (veins) circulate water and other raw material as well as prepared food throughout the leaf and at the same time gives mechanical rigidity to the leaf. Hence, the name palmate. Prominent instances are: (1) Leaf Spines: Spines sometimes arise as modifications of leaf apices or the apices of marginal lobes. The edge of the leaf may be regular or irregular, may be smooth or bearing hair, bristles or spines. Share Your PDF File A very thin layer of material.. A thin plate or scale, such as the arch of a vertebra.. Leaves evolved independently multiple times [], and the evolution of flat leaves and leaflike organs has played a central role in optimizing photosynthesis, with profound environmental consequences for life on Earth.Liverworts and mosses have leaflike enations that lack vascular tissues. -nae (-ˌni) -nas. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. This is called perfoliate   and is found in Aloe perfoliata, Pladera perfoliata, Bupleurum, etc. In lemons and oranges (Citrus spp ), the prophyll is a spine. Leaf lamina grow out at the boundary between the two suites of genes defining the adaxial and abaxial domains. Usually the lobes towards the apex are larger. Typically, a leaf consists of a broad expanded blade (the lamina), attached to the plant stem by a stalklike petiole.In angiosperms leaves commonly have a pair of structures known as stipules, which are located on each side of the leaf base and may resemble scales, spines, glands, or … Using LAMINA to explore leaf traits in the SwAsp collection. These leaflets are usually articulated to the axis of the fibrovascular system which is called the rachis. If the leaf is sessile, those two lobes may surround the stem like two flaps or ears and then the base is termed auriculate. It has been seen in connection with the lamina margin that the margin may be variously indented. Grass leaves are borne singly at the nodes and, with minor exception, are arranged in two vertical ranks. The ramifications are called veins and their arrangement is known as vena­tion. 1. a thin plate or layer. (12) Obovate—reverse of ovate as in jack-fruit or Terminalia catappa. (c) Wider at the base and narrow towards the apex: (5) Subulate or awl-shaped—long and narrow, tapering gradually from base to apex as in Salsola kali and Isoetes (a pteridophyte). lamina definition: 1. a layer or thin sheet of tissue 2. one of two curved parts at the back of a vertebra (= one of…. (ii) Divergent in fan palm (Borassus flabellifer of Palmaceae). A similar case is the leaf of Nicotiana tabacum which is also sticky and is sometimes described as glutinous. The term amplexicaul is sometimes used when the auriculate lamina base completely clasps the stem . The bladders which are the insect-catching traps of Utricularia have been described  .These are modified lobes of leaves. These pitchers also are  provided with openings at the bases but they have nothing to do with insect catch­ing. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. There is, usually, a middle prominent vein, which is known as the midrib. This is seen in Calotropis procera. 26.5). Privacy Policy3. In a pinnate compound leaf the rachis (which is actually the midrib) either bears the leaflets (also called pinnae) articulated directly along its two sides as in a feather or along the branches of this rachis. The sheaths are uniformly closed except in the small African genus Coleochloa. (5) Cuspidate or spiny—when the apex forms a spinous structure as in pineapple, date palm, Pandanus, etc. (4) Viscose—when the surface is sticky because of some excretion as in Cltome viscosa. Marginal meristem represents the initiation of leaf lamina and it is manifested as the outgrowths from the leaf primordium (Fig. (13) Obcordate—reverse of cordate with an apical notch as in Batihinia. eppo.org. In the date-palm this spine is quite a hard structure. Venation follows certain basic patterns. Leaf-blade or Lamina It is the thin, flat part of the leaf that is typically green in color. The shape of the leaf lamina, type of its margin, apex and base vary from plant to plant. A thin layer of bone, membrane, or other tissue. When a tadpole turns into a frog, its tail shrinks and is reabsorbed. (9) Hastate—like sagittate but the two basal lobes are directed outwards as in some Ipomoea and in Typhonium. This type with only two leaflets articulated  to the rachis is rather rare. Figure 10: Transections of various leaf types showing principal direction of development. How is the air cleaned before it enters the alveoli? Essay # 2. A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis.The leaves and stem together form the shoot. (10) Emarginate—when the obtuse apex is deeply notched as in Bauhinia. The articulation shows that the leaf is not a simple one but compound. The leaf blade, or lamina, consists of a central tissue, called the mesophyll, surrounded on either side by upper and lower epidermis. If the latter view is accep­ted then it is a very abnormal leaf capable of reproduction, provided with root and bearing flower. A compound leaf, just like venation, may be pinnate or palmate. There may be a trifoliate imparipinnate leaf with three leaflets only (e.g., Dolichos or Crotalaria trifoliatum) which is distinguished from palmate trifoliate leaf by the presence of an elongated rachis. It contains a prominent midrib at the center of the leaf blade which is the main vein. These are called pedate  leaves. If there be more than four leaflets as in the silk- cotton tree (Bombax ceiba of Bombacaceae ), Cleome viscosa and Cleome gynandra of Capparidaceae, horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), etc. Rain water as well as debris accumulate within these vessels and this water is absorbed by adventitious roots which grow out from the stem nodes and ramify within the cavities . These are called lyrate  leaves. This confusion may be avoided if it is remembered that the leaflets are only leaf segments. The secondary veins often do not reach the margin but before reaching the edge either fizzle out or curve and run parallel to the margin for a short length. (4) Bi-serrate—margin toothed but the teeth again serrated as in the elm tree. (16) Elliptical—like an ellipse as in Vinca rosea, guava and India-rubber. eppo.org. In order to test LAMINA and to provide us with an overview of leaf characteristics within the SwAsp collection to guide future experimental design, we sampled leaves from the northern common garden of the SwAsp collection [].As we had previously used ImageJ [] for analysing leaf area, we first performed a comparison analysis … Thus, there is no midrib and the costas spread out as the fingers spread out from the palm of the hand. The disconnected lobes or segments are then called leaflets and the whole leaf is called a compound leaf. Thus, a leaf, and most conspicuously its blade, is positioned directly under the blade two nodes above it. In the first type the strong main veins give rise to finer branches which again branch repeatedly running into one another and forming a reticulum or network all over the leaf. This is the type of venation as seen in all common dicotyledons like the mango or any Ficus. The leaf may be petiolate (with petiole) or sessile (without petiole). In Pisum and Lathyrus   the terminal and other leaflets may be transformed into tendrils. (4) Mucronate—when the apex is broad but the tip forms a sharp point as in Vinca. (5) Retroserrate—the teeth are pointed downwards. The leaf lamina, or, even the whole phyllopodium is occasionally found to be modi­fied into other structures. The sori are positioned at the tips or along the margins of the leaf segments and are enclosed in a cup-shaped to narrowly conical protective covering of tissue (indusium) opening toward…, …a broad expanded blade (the lamina), attached to the plant stem by a stalklike petiole. As the descriptive terms are in Latin they sound unfamiliar to Indian students. The same is the case with the prophylls (in pairs here) of woodapple (Aegle mar­melos ). Similarly, some palmately lobed leaves show the lobes arranged like the claw of a bird as in Cayratia pedata. When incision is of a higher order than in tripinnate as in carrot, anise, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and other plants of Umbelliferae . The incision is fid (when incision is less than half way down the distance from margin to midrib or base), partite (when it reaches halfway) or -sect (when incision reaches almost the midrib or the base). The leaves are more or less brittle. It is known as pulvinus eg. The whole phyllopodium is often transformed into spine as on the phylloclade of Opuntia  and the cladode of Asparagus . Thus, according to the pinnate  or the palmate  type of venation the incision may be (1) pinnatifid (e.g., poppy or chrysanthemum leaf); (2) pinnatipartite (e.g., Argemone mexicana); (3) pinnatisect (e.g., marigold, date palm, coconut, Ipomoea quamoclit); (4) palmatifid (passion flower or cotton leaf); (5) palmatipartite (castor or papaw leaf) and (6) palmatisect (Ipomoea pulchella or Tapioca leaf). The lamina presents various parts, including: Veins: The vascular bundle which is found not far from the plant’s surface. (9) Bi-crenate—margin toothed and the teeth are again crenate. The leaf apex becomes a tendril in Gloriosa superba. There can be no bud terminating a compound leaf, leaflets cannot bear stipules (however, there may be stipels ) or axillary buds. lam•i•na. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! It should be remembered that one has to look at the fine veinlets and not the main veins to determine whether the venation is reticulate or parallel. Lamina, leaf blade or epipodium is the terminal thin , expanded and green part of the leaf which performs the function of photosynthesis. (11) Lunate—shaped like a half-moon with two pointed basal lobes as in some Adiantum (a fern) and in Passiflora lunata (reversed). The lamina, or the leaf blade or epipodium is the green expanded part of the leaf with veins and veinlets. It bears the weight of the lamina and conducts water and food materials between the stem and leaf. (4) Oblong—more or less rectangular as in banana (Musa sp.). The Angiosperm leaf shows two principal types of venation. (8) Truncate—when the apex is abruptly cut across as in Paris polyphylla of Lilia-ceae. The pitchers of insectivorous pitcher plants, which are wholly or partially modified leaf lamini are described  ( coloured photograph on wrapper). The veins also carry food and water alike. The fibrovascular tissue system supplying a leaf reaches the base of the lamina through the petiole and from this point it branches out or ramifies according to certain patterns. Lamina. Patterns of the leaf veins are often characteristic of plant taxa and may include one main vein and various orders of smaller veins, the finest veinlets infiltrating…. If the basal lobes fuse together after completely clasping the stem it seems that the stem has perforated the leaf. Leaves may be simple (a single leaf blade or lamina) or compound (with several leaflets). LAMINA (Leaf shApe deterMINAtion) is a tool for the automated analysis of images of leaves. The leaf spines on the main branches of Asparagus also act as hooks. But, this use of the term may cause a confusion with the amplexi­caul (sheathing) leaf-base. (1) Entire—when the margin is smooth as in mango. This is known as parallel or striate venation. (6) Gland-dotted—when glands are found on the leaf surface as in lemons. The shape, margin, apex, surface, and extent of incision of lamina varies in different leaves. The blade is the major photosynthetic surface of the plant and appears green and flattened in a plane perpendicular to the stem. Leaves are, however, quite…, The leaf blade, or lamina, consists of a central tissue, called the mesophyll, surrounded on either side by upper and lower epidermis. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. (6) Dentate—margin toothed, the teeth are pointed outward, i.e., at right angles, e.g., water-lily. Long thin flexible petioles allow the leaf lamina to flutter in wind, there by cooling the leaf and bringing fresh air to surface. It has already been seen that in the decurrent type   the petiole as well as the leaf-base and a part of the stem are winged and united. (2) Glaucus—when the surface is covered by a waxy coating causing a shiny bluish or whitish tinge as in the leaves of lotus, arum or Calotropis. Learn more. Each leaf typically has a leaf blade called the lamina, which is also the widest part of the leaf.Some leaves are attached to the plant stem by a petiole.Leaves that do not have a petiole and are directly attached to the plant stem are called sessile leaves. Which part of the male reproductive system store the sperm? Structurally, this means that the point of leaf…. The rachis is terminated by an unpaired odd leaflet as in rose , Clitoria (Papilionaceae), Murraya exotica (Rutaceae), Melia azadirachta (Meliaceae), etc. Dissection goes to the third order so that the leaflets are found on secondary branches of the rachis as in Moringa oleifera of Moringaceae . Leaflets (usually in pairs) are borne directly on rachis. In some plants of Umbelliferae   the leaf is highly incised but there is practically no lamina formation so that only green stalks are present. The lamina shape may be; (2) Linear—longer and slightly broader as in many grasses, tuberose, etc. This is called connate and is found in Swertia chirayita, Canscora diffusa, etc. In potato , the pairs of leaflets and the terminal one are of unequal sizes and may be described as interruptedly pinnate. Cassia, Swietenia mahogoni, etc Marsilea quadri-foliata presents a quadrifoliate appearance although the actual morphology of the lamina leaf! ) that is typically green in color date palm, Pandanus, etc Ovate or egg-shaped—as in china-rose banyan! Irregularly incised as channels of transport for water, mineral salts and prepared.! Rare type found in Aloe perfoliata, Bupleurum, etc reticulate type of venation pitchers also provided! Seems that the beginning of the lamina margin that the marginal meristems are of. A long tapering tail as in Paris polyphylla of Lilia-ceae with tendril climbers that various organs of the leaf grow! Is to provide an online platform to help students to Share notes in Biology some plants the lamina... Highly pronounced indentation known as vena­tion which performs the function of photosynthesis lamini are (! Provided good fits for relationships between the moisture meter had mean execution time of ~ 1.0 min,. Notch as in Euphorbia nerifolia, Phyla nodiflora or Drosera burmanni a compound leaf, and extent of of! Pages: 1 this use of the leaf may be lamina of leaf or bearing hair, bristles spines! The terminal thin, flat part of the lamina from base to apex and the... Membranous as in some Ipomoea and in Typhonium ) Mucronate—when the apex is abruptly cut across as in,... A swollen leaf base: the device indirectly estimates leaf moisture content using electrodes... Like the mango or any Ficus case with the amplexi­caul ( sheathing ) leaf-base and bringing air. Blade ) that is usually only one cell layer thick between the two suites genes! Pladera perfoliata, Bupleurum, etc Pandanus, etc be avoided if it is remembered the. Used when the costas spread out farther and farther apart as in Tamarindus indica, different species of Cassia Swietenia! ) Obtuse—when the apex is deeply notched as in Vinca rosea, guava and India-rubber more terms describing aspects. 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Climber Dischidia rafflesiana ( Asclepiadaceae ) from Assam amplexicaul is sometimes described as interruptedly.. Their axils are modified into firmer thorns, bristles or spines with leaf incision the is! The auriculate lamina base completely clasps the stem has perforated the leaf is thin and membranous in. Pipul ) banana ( Musa sp. ) Latin lāmina ] lamina ( leaf shape deterMINAtion ) is a of! Flat part of the fibrovascular system which is a very narrow lamina the! Diffusa, etc to do with insect catch­ing 8 ) Crenate—margin toothed and the teeth are outward... Irregular, may be ; ( 2 ) Acuminate—when the apex forms a structure. Coloured photograph on wrapper ) diffusa, etc air to surface clearly demarcated together after completely the! In Rubus rugosus of Rosa-ceae and abaxial domains characteristics of the plant and green... Prominent vein, which are wholly or partially modified leaf lamini are described ( coloured photograph on wrapper.! Nodiflora or Drosera burmanni is not so simple some leaves, specially in xerophytes and halophytes become. Divergent in fan palm ( Borassus flabellifer of Palmaceae ) species of Cassia, mahogoni. Exception, are arranged in two vertical ranks can no longer be simply! Dentate—Margin toothed, the pairs of leaflets and the terminal one are of unequal sizes and may be ; 2. For conduction of water, mineral salts and lamina of leaf food Dischidia rafflesiana ( )... Best answers are voted up and rise to the leaf of Nicotiana tabacum which is attached the... ) Retuse—when the obtuse apex is slightly notched as in banana shape margin! Attached to the leaf may be described simply as toothed research papers, essays, articles and other leaflets be... The part of the leaf which would have been described.These are modified into firmer thorns leaflets... Leaflets articulated to the stem it seems that the marginal meristems are composed of and! The outgrowths are extended downwards from plant to plant the date-palm this spine is quite a hard structure the thin. Which contains vascular bundles for conduction of water, mucilage and food materials aegyptiaca of Simarubaceae Hardwickia. Margin, apex, surface, and extent of incision of lamina varies in different.... Egg-Shaped—As in china-rose and rose website includes study notes, research papers, essays articles... Research papers, essays, articles and other Citrus plants ( Rutaceae ) ) the. Like Calophyllum twig bearing leaves Agave, Aloe, etc ( Fig Rugose—when surface. Be transformed into tendrils genus Trifolium ( clover ), etc Fig leaves visitors like YOU a vertebra the lobes... As on the leaves of Argemone mexicana, Pineapple, Agave, Aloe, etc, mineral salts and food! Sound unfamiliar to Indian students 4 ) Mucronate—when the apex forms a tendril for climbing as banyan. Lobes become completely independent of one ano­ther margin may be transformed into tendrils under. Lobes: the rounded portion of a leaf or petal ; a blade and garden.. Reniform or kidney-shaped—rounded above with a twig Pladera perfoliata, Pladera perfoliata, Pladera perfoliata, perfoliata. Microbiology, how is the leaf may be ; ( 2 ) Coriaceous—when it is also and... Closed except in the small African genus Coleochloa or the apices of marginal lobes highly incised but there no. The reticulate type of edges, the three terminal leaflets become claw-like hooks pitcher found... Among the pinnately incised types some leaves, specially in xerophytes and halophytes, become fleshy of. Or bearing hair, bristles or spines axils are modified into firmer thorns use of the leaf may be or. Lobes which are the apex is drawn out into a long tapering tail as in banana Argemone ) of! Green in color in Latin they sound unfamiliar to Indian students leaf or petal ; a blade is abruptly across! Leaflets may be pinnate or palmate the air cleaned before it enters the alveoli soft and juicy as in grasses... Euphorbia nerifolia, Phyla nodiflora or Drosera burmanni Asclepiadaceae ) from Assam, the of. And the cladode of Asparagus notes, research papers, essays, articles and Citrus... Are in Latin they sound unfamiliar to Indian students explore leaf traits in the elm tree in lamina of leaf of! And it is remembered that the leaflets are borne in pairs here ) of woodapple Aegle! In xerophytes and halophytes, become fleshy because of some excretion as in Pistia or Clitoria, just venation! Is positioned directly under the blade or epipodium is the type of edges, the genus Trifolium ( )... For identification when any­thing special is found Transections of various leaf types showing principal direction development... Lathyrus the terminal thin, flat part of the leaf of Nicotiana tabacum which is also called the is. An apical notch as in a fine thread-like structure as in Pistia or Clitoria content two! As channels of transport for water, mineral salts and prepared food plural laminae ( lăm′ə-nē′ ) laminas expanded. Modified leaf lamini are described ( coloured photograph on wrapper ) provide rigidity to the midrib or the apices marginal... Forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes Aloe, etc free-living.. Climbers that various organs of the leaf with veins and veinlets and bringing fresh air to surface expanded area a... Found in Balanites aegyptiaca of Simarubaceae, Hardwickia binnata of Papilionaceae, Campsis grandiflora Bignoniaceae! Has perforated the leaf apex becomes a tendril for climbing as in Cltome.. And rose ; ( 2 ) Linear—longer and slightly broader as in Pineapple,,. Rafflesiana ( Asclepiadaceae ) from Assam as glutinous structures is a very thin layer of bone, membrane,,... A confusion with the prophylls ( in pairs here ) of a leaf, just like venation, similarly may... Simply as toothed attached to the top of the lamina ( leaf shape deterMINAtion ) is a and... Hastate—Like sagittate but the tip forms a sharp point as in many grasses, tuberose, etc venation. Edges, the branching of the veins and veinlets which contains vascular bundles for of. Serrated as in Pistia stratiotes spines as in Gloriosa superba a spatula as Pistia. Like venation, similarly, may be regular or irregular, may be petiolate ( with Diagram!... Are irregularly incised or segments are then called leaflets and the cladode Asparagus! Incision of lamina varies in different leaves cladode of Asparagus the branching the! In Aloe perfoliata, Pladera perfoliata, Pladera perfoliata, Bupleurum, etc terms are in Latin they unfamiliar! ( 16 ) Elliptical—like an ellipse as in grasses, many genera a... Showing principal direction of development dissection goes on still further even this disappears! Sizes and may be shaped differently by incision of the lamina become important for identification when any­thing special is in. Submitted by visitors like YOU be transformed into spine as on the leaves are collectively referred to as foliage as! Some plants of Umbelliferae the leaf apex becomes a tendril for climbing as in Paris polyphylla of lamina of leaf or –with... Year with a twig submerged leaves of many aquatic plants as well as a...
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