In the 1990s the Aussiedlergesetze enabled immigration to Germany of some residents from the former Soviet Union. [130] From 2012 to 2015 Berlin, as a German state, had the highest annual employment growth rate. Taschenkalender. The city has a high density of internationally renowned research institutions, such as the Fraunhofer Society, the Leibniz Association, the Helmholtz Association, and the Max Planck Society, which are independent of, or only loosely connected to its universities. This was a successful attempt to centralise the capital in the very far-flung state, and it was the first time the city began to grow. October weather forecast for Berlin, Germany. Months with the highest UV index are June and July (UV index 6). The Charité Medical School has around 8,000 students. Typical Germanized place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch. Twelve restaurants in Berlin have been included in the Michelin Guide of 2015, which ranks the city at the top for the number of restaurants having this distinction in Germany. [76] The wettest month on record was July 1907, with 230 millimeters (9.1 in) of rainfall, whereas the driest were October 1866, November 1902, October 1908 and September 1928, all with 1 millimeter (0.039 in) of rainfall.[77]. It is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. The sector comprises music, film, advertising, architecture, art, design, fashion, performing arts, publishing, R&D, software,[148] TV, radio, and video games. In most of the inner districts of Berlin power lines are underground cables; only a 380 kV and a 110 kV line, which run from Reuter substation to the urban Autobahn, use overhead lines. The protests of the town citizens against the building culminated in 1448, in the "Berlin Indignation" ("Berliner Unwille"). It is the only observation tower which stands on insulators and has a restaurant 55 m (180 ft) and an observation deck 126 m (413 ft) above ground, which is reachable by a windowed elevator. In 2018, the GDP of Berlin totaled €147 billion, an increase of 3.1% over the previous year. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte,[28] and a wooden beam dated from approximately 1192. East Berlin's partnerships were canceled at the time of German reunification but later partially reestablished. 5 Euro - Proof. The neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, and Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. In 1443, Frederick II Irontooth started the construction of a new royal palace in the twin city Berlin-Cölln. The Messe Berlin (also known as Berlin ExpoCenter City) is the main convention organizing company in the city. The course of the Havel is more like a chain of lakes, the largest being the Tegeler See and the Großer Wannsee. [193], One of Europe's successful research, business and technology clusters is based at WISTA in Berlin-Adlershof, with more than 1,000 affiliated firms, university departments and scientific institutions.[194]. For other uses, see. Berlin has a long history of discoveries in medicine and innovations in medical technology. [citation needed]. A large crypt houses the remains of some of the earlier Prussian royal family. [12] In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. The House of Representatives (Abgeordnetenhaus) functions as the city and state parliament, which has 141 seats. It combines 20th-century traditions with the modern architecture of today's Berlin. The Beate Uhse Erotic Museum claims to be the world's largest erotic museum.[205]. Berlin's executive body is the Senate of Berlin (Senat von Berlin). Generating a revenue of 15.6 billion Euro and 6% of all private economic sales, the culture industry grew from 2009 to 2014 at an average rate of 5.5% per year.[149]. Climate Zones of the Earth - Subpolar Zone (4.) Sandy Mecklenburg in the northeast has many glacier-formed lakes dating to the last glacial period. Berlin - Average temperatures. [151] The public broadcaster RBB has its headquarters in Berlin as well as the commercial broadcasters MTV Europe and Welt. Around 500,000 daily bike riders accounted for 13% of total traffic in 2010. The Volksbühne at Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz was built in 1913–14, though the company had been founded in 1890. Future applications for broadband networks are developed as well. The information below is from Tables B-2, B-3, and B-4 in that appendix. [needs update]. [235] The city's other zoo, Tierpark Friedrichsfelde, was founded in 1955. [citation needed] During World War II, large parts of Berlin were destroyed during 1943–45 Allied air raids and the 1945 Battle of Berlin. Berlin, Germany – After a five-hour hearing today, the Berlin Administrative Court decided that a complaint seeking more climate protection is admissible in principle, but dismissed the lawsuit considering that fundamental rights of three farming families are not yet compromised. The creative arts and entertainment business is an important part of Berlin's economy. After the war, the repaired bridge served as a checkpoint and border crossing between the Soviet and American sectors, and later between East and West Berlin. ", "In Germany, a Jewish community now thrives", "Berlins jüdische Gotteshäuser vor der Pogromnacht 1938: Untergang einer religiösen Vielfalt", "Verfassung von Berlin – Abschnitt IV: Die Regierung", "Berliner Haushalt Finanzsenator bleibt trotz sprudelnder Steuereinnahmen vorsichtig", "Berlin Mayor, Symbol of Openness, Has National Appeal", "Städtepartnerschaftsverein Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg e. 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The West German government established itself in Bonn. Daimler manufactures cars, and BMW builds motorcycles in Berlin. The month with least sunshine is December (Average sunshine: 1.2h). Berlin has a long history of gay culture, and is an important birthplace of the LGBT rights movement. [177] The FU, the HU, the TU, and the Charité make up the Berlin University Alliance, which has received funding from the Excellence Strategy program of the German government. Following German reunification, the center portion was reconstructed with a steel frame, and U-Bahn service resumed in 1995. The East Side Gallery is an open-air exhibition of art painted directly on the last existing portions of the Berlin Wall. [126], The Federal Chancellery building, seat of the Chancellor of Germany, Schloss Bellevue, seat of the President of Germany, Prussian House of Lords, the seat of the Bundesrat of Germany, Headquarters of the Federal Intelligence Service. The Haus der Kulturen der Welt presents exhibitions dealing with intercultural issues and stages world music and conferences. : Stöver B. Geschichte Berlins. The President of Germany, whose functions are mainly ceremonial under the German constitution, has their official residence in Bellevue Palace. It began construction in 2006, with the intention of replacing Tegel Airport (TXL) and Schönefeld Airport (SXF) as the single commercial airport of Berlin. However, in 1948, when the Western Allies extended the currency reform in the Western zones of Germany to the three western sectors of Berlin, the Soviet Union imposed a blockade on the access routes to and from West Berlin, which lay entirely inside Soviet-controlled territory. Some parts in the southwest have much more sun and generally higher temperature than most of the country. ): Berlin 1994. The Spree follows this valley now. With a seating capacity of 1,895 and a stage floor of 2,854 square meters (30,720 sq ft), the Friedrichstadt-Palast in Berlin Mitte is the largest show palace in Europe. Juni, connecting the Brandenburg Gate and Ernst-Reuter-Platz, serves as the central east–west axis. Month. Germany is located in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere and a general description of the climate is hardly possible due to its geographical location. Find Other Styles Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. 80.000 pieces; Delivery in original packaging; This 5 Euro collector's coin is the fourth issue of the five-part series "Climate Zones of the Earth" and is dedicated to the Subpolar Zone. Its musical director is Daniel Barenboim. The sunshine reduces drastically to 4 hours by the end of October as cold fronts become common. Museum Berggruen houses the collection of noted 20th century collector Heinz Berggruen, and features an extensive assortment of works by Picasso, Matisse, Cézanne, and Giacometti, among others. With an area of 43 hectares (110 acres) and around 22,000 different plant species, it is one of the largest and most diverse collections of botanical life in the world. Berlin has galleries which are quite rich in contemporary art. [42] Many other immigrants came from Bohemia, Poland, and Salzburg. [124], Berlin is the capital of the Federal Republic of Germany. The city's appearance today has been predominantly shaped by the key role it played in Germany's history during the 20th century. The KitKatClub and several other locations are known for their sexually uninhibited parties. The city can be viewed from its 204-meter-high (669 ft) observation floor. The Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra is one of the preeminent orchestras in the world;[220] it is housed in the Berliner Philharmonie near Potsdamer Platz on a street named for the orchestra's longest-serving conductor, Herbert von Karajan. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, and Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. Winters in the North German Plain tend to be consistently colder, if only by a few degrees, than in the south, largely because of winds from Scandinavia. Berlin lies between two hills and partially on their slopes. As of 2011[update] Berlin is home to 138 museums and more than 400 art galleries. Berlin has established a high-profile as a host city of major international sporting events. Snowfall mainly occurs from December through March. Long-distance rail lines connect Berlin with all of the major cities of Germany and with many cities in neighboring European countries. This climate is considered to be Dfb according to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Berlin was completely divided. It was remodeled by British architect Norman Foster in the 1990s and features a glass dome over the session area, which allows free public access to the parliamentary proceedings and magnificent views of the city. [169] Tegel Airport was a focus city for Lufthansa and Eurowings while Schönefeld served as an important destination for airlines like Germania, easyJet and Ryanair. The Westerlies bring cool moist air from the Bay of Biscay to Berlin. [115] The state owns extensive assets, including administrative and government buildings, real estate companies, as well as stakes in the Olympic Stadium, swimming pools, housing companies, and numerous public enterprises and subsidiary companies.[116][117]. Since 2017, the digital television standard in Berlin and Germany is DVB-T2. Polish, English, Russian, and Vietnamese have more native speakers in East Berlin. There are seven symphony orchestras in Berlin. Be prepared with the most accurate 10-day forecast for Berlin, Germany with highs, lows, chance of precipitation from The Weather Channel and Weather.com [198] In 2005, Berlin was named "City of Design" by UNESCO and has been part of the Creative Cities Network ever since.[199][21]. … Airline service to West Berlin was granted only to American, British and French airlines. It also runs an airport express rail service, as well as trains to several international destinations like Vienna, Prague, Zürich, Warsaw, Budapest and Amsterdam. The Berlin lies on 37m above sea level Berlin's climate is classified as warm and temperate. The Museum für Naturkunde (Berlin's natural history museum) exhibits natural history near Berlin Hauptbahnhof. It is also the best ranked region in former East Germany after Jena, Dresden and Potsdam.[157][158]. [238] Tempelhofer Feld, the site of the former city airport, is the world's largest inner-city open space. [233] Asian cuisine like Chinese, Vietnamese, Thai, Indian, Korean, and Japanese restaurants, as well as Spanish tapas bars, Italian, and Greek cuisine, can be found in many parts of the city. Berlin's built-up area creates a microclimate, with heat stored by the city's buildings and pavement. Berlin is home to many magazine, newspaper, book and scientific/academic publishers, as well as their associated service industries. [104] About 2.7% of the population identify with other Christian denominations (mostly Eastern Orthodox, but also various Protestants). According to Mercer, Berlin ranked number 13 in the Quality of living city ranking in 2019. A well-preserved specimen of Tyrannosaurus rex and the early bird Archaeopteryx are at display as well. [8][9] Its 3,769,495 inhabitants as of 31 December 2019[2] make it the most-populous city of the European Union, according to population within city limits. Februar", "BVG will verlängerte U5 am 4. Berlin is the capitol of Germany (since 1990 following German reunification) and has a population of 3.5M people.. Berlin’s economy is mainly based on the service sector due to being one of the most popular touristic destinations in Europe. Many residents strongly identify with their neighborhoods, colloquially called Kiez. The city's main venue for musical theater performances are the Theater am Potsdamer Platz and Theater des Westens (built in 1895). The warmest month (with the highest average high temperature) is July (23.7°C). The focal point is the Brandenburg Gate, where midnight fireworks are centered, but various private fireworks displays take place throughout the entire city. Berlin's official sister cities are:[120], Apart from sister cities, there are also several city and district partnerships that Berlin districts have established. The office of the Governing Mayor is in the Rotes Rathaus (Red City Hall). Based on weather reports collected during 1985–2015. EKBO is a member of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) and Union Evangelischer Kirchen (UEK). The climate of the city is continental with some features of maritime weather. The relocation of the federal government and Bundestag to Berlin was mostly completed in 1999, however some ministries as well as some minor departments stayed in the federal city Bonn, the former capital of West Germany. Additional suburbs soon developed and increased the area and population of Berlin. In front of it is the Neptunbrunnen, a fountain featuring a mythological group of Tritons, personifications of the four main Prussian rivers and Neptune on top of it. More than half of all German Nobel Prize winners in Physiology or Medicine, including Emil von Behring, Robert Koch and Paul Ehrlich, have worked at the Charité. Many Classical buildings line the street and part of Humboldt University is there. The Neues Museum, which displays the bust of Queen Nefertiti,[201] Alte Nationalgalerie, Pergamon Museum, and Bode Museum were built there. Since 2015, the Arkenberge hills in Pankow at 122 meters (400 ft) elevation, have been the highest point in Berlin. Since 2014 this office has been held by Michael Müller of the Social Democrats.[119]. Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish and Serbo-Croatian are heard more often in the western part, due to the large Middle Eastern and former-Yugoslavian communities. Since 1989, the transport network has been developed extensively; however, it still contains early 20th century traits, such as the U1. Public transportation in Berlin has a long and complicated history because of the 20th century division of the city, where movement between the two halves was not served. Wetlands and marshy conditions are found close to the Dutch border and along the Frisian coast. It also houses a multi-sensory spa experience. [85] Berlin's second largest and most popular park, the Großer Tiergarten, is located right in the center of the city. All Year Climate & Weather Averages in Berlin. This monument, built to commemorate Prussia's victories, was relocated in 1938–39 from its previous position in front of the Reichstag. As of 2014[update], Berlin had 878 schools, teaching 340,658 children in 13,727 classes and 56,787 trainees in businesses and elsewhere. Until 2008, Berlin was also served by the smaller Tempelhof Airport, which functioned as a city airport, with a convenient location near the city center allowing for quick transit times between the central business district and the airport. Subsequently, the Altes Museum was built in the Lustgarten. Germany > Berlin. [14] After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided; West Berlin became a de facto West German exclave, surrounded by the Berlin Wall (1961–1989) and East German territory. Tegel Airport was within the city limits, and Schönefeld Airport was located at the same site as the BER. Columns of tractors, farmers, climate, and animal rights activists gathered to demand new agricultural policies in Berlin for the yearly 'We're fed up' demonstration, on Saturday. Typical Berliner fare include popular street food like the Currywurst (which gained popularity with postwar construction workers rebuilding the city), Buletten and the Berliner donut, known in Berlin as Pfannkuchen. Turkish and Arab immigrants brought their culinary traditions to the city, such as the lahmajoun and falafel, which have become common fast food staples. Berlin's transport infrastructure is highly complex, providing a diverse range of urban mobility. [246], The annual Berlin Marathon – a course that holds the most top-10 world record runs – and the ISTAF are well-established athletic events in the city. [248] A Fan Fest at Brandenburg Gate, which attracts several hundred-thousand spectators, has become popular during international soccer competitions, like the UEFA European Championship. Another temperature factor that affects Berlin is distance to an ocean. Berlin's Expats Go Bezirk", "Egypt battling for more relics after Louvre success", "Dealer Will Enrich Art of the Berlin He Fled", "Berlin – Urban Art – visitBerlin.de EN", "Graffiti in the death strip: the Berlin wall's first street artist tells his story", "The 26 Best Cities in the World To See Street Art", "Art of Now – Berlin's Nightlife – BBC Sounds", "Berlin Philharmonic elects Sir Simon Rattle", "In the Capital of Electronic Music, Women Rule the Scene", "Good Taste Award Winner 2015: Berlin, The New Vegetarian Capital", "Conscious Food Consumption at Berlin's Restlos Glücklich", "Spicy sausage that is worthy of a shrine in Berlin", "Chocolate Heaven at Fassbender & Rausch", "There's Nothing More German Than a Big, Fat Juicy Döner Kebab", "Peter Joseph Lenné, Senate Department of Urban Development", "Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin", "Melbourne retains ultimate sports city title", "Italy conquer the world as Germany wins friends", "Euroleague Final Four returns to Berlin in 2016", "Berlin, Germany selected to host the 2023 Special Olympics World Games", "500,000 spectators to watch the game together", "Der Landessportbund Berlin – Mitglieder", "Berlin's swimming pools and bathing spots", Cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, states of the Federal Republic of Germany, Institutional seats of the European Union, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, American Foundation for AIDS Research (AMFAR), Association of Academies of the Spanish Language, Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul, Spanish Organization for the Blind (ONCE), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Berlin&oldid=1005006547, Populated places established in the 13th century, 1230s establishments in the Holy Roman Empire, Articles with dead external links from July 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from November 2020, Articles with dead external links from July 2019, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Pages using multiple image with manual scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2021, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from January 2021, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, BVG / Operates predominantly in eastern boroughs, BVG / Extensive services in all boroughs / 62 Night Lines, BVG / Transportation as well as recreational ferries, 2020: Spanish health workers on the front line against, This page was last edited on 5 February 2021, at 14:03. Each borough is governed by a borough council (Bezirksamt) consisting of five councilors (Bezirksstadträte) including the borough's mayor (Bezirksbürgermeister). Large parts of the boroughs Reinickendorf and Pankow lie on the Barnim Plateau, while most of the boroughs of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Tempelhof-Schöneberg, and Neukölln lie on the Teltow Plateau. [177] The Charité is a joint institution of the Freie Universität Berlin and the Humboldt University of Berlin, including a wide range of institutes and specialized medical centers. The Weekend Club near Alexanderplatz features a roof terrace that allows partying at night. The Social Democratic Party (SPD) and The Left (Die Linke) took control of the city government after the 2001 state election and won another term in the 2006 state election. In 1933, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power. In 1920, the Greater Berlin Act incorporated dozens of suburban cities, villages and estates around Berlin into an expanded city. [140], Among the 10 largest employers in Berlin are the City-State of Berlin, Deutsche Bahn, the hospital providers Charité and Vivantes, the Federal Government of Germany, the local public transport provider BVG, Siemens and Deutsche Telekom. However, all that extra moisture has an upside. Substantial parts of present-day Berlin extend onto the low plateaus on both sides of the Spree Valley. Facing the Chancellery is the Bundestag, the German Parliament, housed in the renovated Reichstag building since the government's relocation to Berlin in 1998. [88] To the west of Potsdamer Platz is the Kulturforum, which houses the Gemäldegalerie, and is flanked by the Neue Nationalgalerie and the Berliner Philharmonie. The SOUND and the Dschungel gained notoriety. Albert Einstein rose to public prominence during his years in Berlin, being awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921. [23] The city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, nightlife, contemporary arts and a very high quality of living. Gerstengarbe FW, Werner PC (2009) A short update on Koeppen climate shifts in Europe between 1901 and 2003. The UMTS (3G) and LTE (4G) networks of the three major cellular operators Vodafone, T-Mobile and O2 enable the use of mobile broadband applications citywide. Location. [32], In 1740, Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great (1740–1786), came to power. Berlin is subdivided into 12 boroughs or districts (Bezirke). Around 125,000 civilians were killed. All of these power stations generate electricity and useful heat at the same time to facilitate buffering during load peaks. The western part of Germany is the one having the mildest climate overall. A private museum venture exhibits a comprehensive documentation of detailed plans and strategies devised by people who tried to flee from the East. Each borough has a number of subdistricts or neighborhoods (Ortsteile), which have roots in much older municipalities that predate the formation of Greater Berlin on 1 October 1920. [64] A partial opening by the end of 2020 of the Humboldt Forum museum, housed in the reconstructed Berlin City Palace, which had been announced in June, was postponed until March 2021. The Gemäldegalerie (Painting Gallery) focuses on the paintings of the "old masters" from the 13th to the 18th centuries, while the Neue Nationalgalerie (New National Gallery, built by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe) specializes in 20th-century European painting. Berlin is one of the world's most livable cities. In 1993 the power grid connections in the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region were renewed. In Germany, adaptation to climate change is a permanent task established along an agreed and politically adopted institutional and methodological framework. [184] Among them around 18% have an international background. In 2019, the urban area of Berlin had about 4.5 million inhabitants. [197], The expanding cultural performance of the city was underscored by the relocation of the Universal Music Group who decided to move their headquarters to the banks of the River Spree. The month with most sunshine is June (Average sunshine: 7.4h). [222] The Konzerthausorchester Berlin was founded in 1952 as the orchestra for East Berlin. Each of which publish books, periodicals, and multimedia products. Berlin weather forecast, current conditions, sunrise, sunset and climate information. Before the opening of the BER in Brandenburg, Berlin was served by Tegel Airport and Schönefeld Airport. 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