The gas is pumped through water to increase the rate at which naturally occurring bacteria break down organic waste materials. When most of the nitrogen is gone, argon and neon also boil off, leaving an impure form of oxygen behind. In events contested at sea level, such oxygen aids are not anything more than a placebo to the athlete; the lungs cannot absorb oxygen any more readily than if supplied by the air. Rusting is a process by which a metal combines with oxygen. Its name comes from the French word for "acid-former," reflecting Lavoisier's incorrect belief that all acids contain oxygen. The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. That is, a rise in atmospheric pressure increases the water’s oxygen content while a decrease in atmospheric pressure lowers the water’s oxygen content. 1 The air is compressed to about 94 psi (650 kPa or 6.5 atm) in a multi-stage compressor. The gas is compressed to about 500 psi (3.4 MPa or 34 atm) and flows through pipes that are 4-12 in (10-30 cm) in diameter. Oxygen can be prepared on a small scale by the decomposition of oxygen-containing compounds. The most abundant isotope, oxygen-18, is stable and available commercially. Photocopying machinery, solar cells, photocells, television picture tubes, and electronic rectifiers and relays (used to control the flow of electric current) all use selenium. The hydrogen could be used as a fuel, and the oxygen could be used to provide life support for lunar colonies. In the air, two oxygen atoms usually join to make dioxygen (O 2), a colourless gas.This gas is often just called oxygen. Some oxygen is also found dissolved in water. Chemistry: Foundations and Applications. Ozone is also sometimes found closer to the Earth's surface. For example, oxygen is used to burn off carbon and other impurities that are in iron to make steel. Lavoisier thought that oxygen was present in all acids, so he suggested the name from two Greek words, oxy -, for acidic, and -gen, for forming. Oxygen is then used in a second step of iron processing in the Bessemer converter, open hearth, or basic oxygen process method of converting pig iron to steel. Inorganic materials also react slowly with oxygen. Retrieved December 22, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/oxygen. It occurs both as a gas and also as part of a large number of compounds. Compressed air is forced down the innermost pipe. At -195.79°C (-320.42°F), nitrogen changes from a gas into a liquid. ." The presence of oxygen in drinking water is favourable, because it assists protective coating formation on the inside of metal water transp… New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. It has a natural abundance of 0.2 percent. In this step, the oxygen is used to react with the excess carbon, silicon, and metals remaining in the pig iron that must be removed in order to produce steel. Retrieved December 22, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/local-interest/sports-fitness-recreation-and-leisure-magazines/oxygen. A small portion of the air is diverted through a compressor, where its pressure is boosted. The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. This is why a lake’s greatest depths can become so oxygen poor. Then the sulfur dioxide can go directly into the manufacture of sulfuric acid, which is where more than 90 percent of the world's mined sulfur winds up. Oxygen is an important element to life on Earth. A number of radioactive isotopes of the element have also been prepared, the most widely used commercially being oxygen-15, which decays by the emission of a positron with a half-life of 122 seconds. How Products Are Made. Metallurgy —The science and technology that deals with the winning of metals from their ores and their conversion into forms that have practical value. It occurs both as an element and in a variety of compounds. Among its many tasks, this satellite will be scanning the surface of the moon for indications of water. LOX containers have the general appearance of very large vacuum bottles consisting of a double-walled container with a vacuum between the two walls. . Scientists believe that oxygen was essentially absent from the earth's atmosphere when the planet was first created. The team's measurements revealed that the abundance of oxygen compared to hydrogen was around 100 times higher than that found in the Orion nebula, so the galaxy could be undergoing a more intense version of the same molecule-splitting process. Inhaled oxygen passes through the sac wall to directly enter the cardiovascular system, and waste carbon dioxide passes out into the lung. Lavoisier was wrong about the presence of oxygen in all acids, but the name was retained for the element. Occurrence and preparation. International Thomson Publishing, 1997. Sometimes, the steps to get from oxygen to the final compound are lengthy. He was also the first person to explain how oxygen is involved in burning. Atmospheric pressure is inversely proportional to altitude. Metal production accounts for the greatest percentage of oxygen use. Then, the physician carefully sealed each tube with paraffin and gave the tubes to Charles Edison. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. Hydrogen sulfide gas is then returned to the atmosphere, where it is oxidized to sulfuric acid. They called these parts the yin and yang of air. The incoming air stream is cooled, while the oxygen and nitrogen are warmed. Standard oxygen is colorless, tasteless, and has no odor. Although English chemist Joseph Priestley (1733–1804) is generally credited with the discovery of oxygen in 1774, many science historians contend that Swedish chemist Carl Scheele (1742–1786) probably discovered oxygen a few years prior to Priestly. Lavoisier also made some important enemies early in his life. Nearly all of the oxygen found on Earth today is produced by biological activity. The reaction between oxygen and another element generally results in the formation of a binary compound known as an oxide. Conditions such as emphysema damage the lungs. https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/oxygen, "Oxygen Excited oxygen yields the bright red and yellow-green colors of the Aurora. The third allotrope of oxygen, ozone, has three atoms in each molecule. Another metallurgical application of oxygen is in torches used for welding and cutting. Finally, oxygen is essential to all animal life on Earth. A few years later Antoine Lavoisier showed that oxygen is a component of the atmosphere. The two discovered oxygen at nearly the same time in 1774, working independently of each other. At a temperature of -320.44°F (-195.8°C), nitrogen begins to boil off. Oxygen is necessary for the survival of all animal life on Earth. Oxygen is an agent in virtually all metabolic processes. Chemistry: Foundations and Applications. . Some people have said that Lavoisier's death was the worst single consequence of the French Revolution. Research confirms that the adaptations required by the body will be complete within two to three weeks of living and training in the thinner air. Oxygen has a pale blue color in the liquid and the solid phases. It is easy to see how essential air is to many processes. Oxygen was named by the French chemist Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743–1794) a few years after its discovery. According to Edison's son Charles, a set of eight empty test tubes sat on the table next to Edison's deathbed in 1931. UXL Encyclopedia of Science. Football players who have run long yardage may inhale some oxygen. For example, there is an unusually large amount of ozone in the Earth's upper atmosphere. Some of the most beautiful colored glasses, ranging from pale pink to brilliant reds, are made with compounds of selenium. Both are bright yellow solids with melting points of about 115°C (239°F). The current in a river mixes oxygen much better than limited currents and waves in a lake. Polonium has 27 isotopes, all of which are radioactive. Eventually, all the gases in air can be made to liquefy (change into a liquid). "Oxygen Cavette, Chris "Oxygen In 1926, he successfully flew a small liquid-fueled rocket a distance of 184 ft (56 m) at a speed of about 60 mph (97 kph). Charcoal is nearly pure carbon (C): Oxygen also combines with elements at room temperature. The combustion of hydrocarbons in petroleum and natural gas has been another major source of energy in human civilization over the past 200 years. There is strong evidence that certain synthetic chemicals, such as the freons and compounds known as the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) may be causing destruction of ozone molecules in the atmosphere. When hydrogen and oxygen combine, they give off very large amounts of energy. The superheated steam causes the underground sulfur to melt, and the compressed air forces it upward, through the middle of the three pipes, to Earth's surface. Oxygen is a gaseous nonmetal; sulfur and selenium are solid nonmetals; tellurium is a solid metalloid; and polonium is a solid metal. (December 22, 2020). That ozone layer is important to life on Earth. That step was taken by French chemist Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743-94). Here are the steps used to produce commercial-grade oxygen from air using the cryogenic distillation process. It is used in blast furnaces to make steel, and is an important component in the production of many synthetic chemicals, including ammonia, alcohols, and various plastics. COPD360social posts are monitored by Vice President of … But now, "taking a whiff" has become even more popular. In air the lack of oxygen is rarely a problem, but in water its effect is more apparent. For example, when coal and metallic ores are mined, sulfur and sulfides may be released and returned to the soil. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. As life developed on Earth and photosynthesis became more common, the rate of production increased until the present concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere, the oceans, and the crustal rocks was reached about 580 million years ago. At a temperature of about −196°C (−320°F), nitrogen begins to boil off. Unpublished until 1777 higher concentrations, however, as early as the century. 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